Inner Armor – Your Best Defense

Designed to strengthen your immune system and defend your body against illness.

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Inner Armer

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Few things in life are as precious as your health. The COVID-19 virus pandemic has certainly brought this message home, sparing no one in one way or another. 

Could our immune systems be stronger, made more ready for future battles with these viruses?  We believe so.  There are many things that weaken your immune system potentially compromising your health. Here are a some, just to name the most common suspects: 

  • Stress
  • Poor nutrition
  • Lack of sleep 
  • Little exercise
  • Poor supplementation, and more.

To defend your health and body with illnesses that come your way, one place to start is building up a strong immune system. This is why we strategically crafted Inner Armor to be your best defense against invading pathogens. With a proprietary blend of the most potent immune support ingredients known to science, Inner Armor is your immune system’s new best friend.

Here’s why:

Few things in life are as precious as your health. The COVID-19 virus pandemic has certainly brought this message home, sparing no one in one way or another. 

Could our immune systems be stronger, made more ready for future battles with these viruses?  We believe so.  There are many things that weaken your immune system potentially compromising your health. Here are a some, just to name the most common suspects: 

  • Stress
  • Poor nutrition
  • Lack of sleep 
  • Little exercise
  • Poor supplementation, and more.

To defend your health and body with illnesses that come your way, one place to start is building up a strong immune system. This is why we strategically crafted Inner Armor to be your best defense against invading pathogens. With a proprietary blend of the most potent immune support ingredients known to science, Inner Armor is your immune system’s new best friend.

Here’s why:

Few things in life are as precious as your health. The COVID-19 virus pandemic has certainly brought this message home, sparing no one in one way or another. 

Could our immune systems be stronger, made more ready for future battles with these viruses?  We believe so.  There are many things that weaken your immune system potentially compromising your health. Here are a some, just to name the most common suspects: 

  • Stress
  • Poor nutrition
  • Lack of sleep 
  • Little exercise
  • Poor supplementation, and more.

To defend your health and body with illnesses that come your way, one place to start is building up a strong immune system. This is why we strategically crafted Inner Armor to be your best defense against invading pathogens. With a proprietary blend of the most potent immune support ingredients known to science, Inner Armor is your immune system’s new best friend.

Here’s why:

Yeast Beta Glucans

You may not have heard of them before, but let me introduce you to beta glucans.  Beta glucans are fibrous sugars found in the cell walls of bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants. They have a stimulating effect on the immune system because the body essentially sees them as foreign invaders and mounts an immune response against this harmless decoy. This kicks up your body’s white blood cell production to keep you healthy and defend against the real pathogenic invaders, not the harmless decoys in beta glucans.

More detail

Beta glucans are friends of the body’s innate immune system, the part of the immune system that responds fast to provide first line defense. The best beta glucans for immune support are those sourced from yeast, as those found in Inner Armor. 

These yeast-based beta glucans perfectly match the receptor sites found on our white blood cells. In addition to white blood cells, many immune cells in the body have receptor sites for beta glucans, as well. This means they can all work together to keep your immune system strong and your body healthy.

Research has shown that those who supplement with beta glucans get upper respiratory tract infections less often, have much more mild symptoms, and are on the mend faster than those who don’t. Bring on the beta glucans!

Yeast Beta Glucans

You may not have heard of them before, but let me introduce you to beta glucans.  Beta glucans are fibrous sugars found in the cell walls of bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants. They have a stimulating effect on the immune system because the body essentially sees them as foreign invaders and mounts an immune response against this harmless decoy. This kicks up your body’s white blood cell production to keep you healthy and defend against the real pathogenic invaders, not the harmless decoys in beta glucans.

Elderberry Extract

Cellular Energy, ATP production, oxygen capacity

If you’ve spent any time looking for ways to support and boost your immune system, you are likely to have come across elderberry extract before. But, don’t be folded by their delicious blueberry looks; elderberry is not your average berry.  These little berries pack a health-promoting punch.

Why? It binds to the virus preventing it from reproducing and infecting your cells. This gets you feeling better, and faster. Especially effective against influenza, elderberry extract blocks the virus from spreading in your body. It has been used effectively for centuries in traditional medicine to address a host of ailments, not the least of which is supporting a stronger immune system.

More detail

Though small in stature, these richly hued berries are packed with antioxidant power to fight oxidative damage. Oxidative damage causes inflammation and disease. Boosting your antioxidant intake supports strong immune function and helps you stay healthy.

Elderberry extract has been proven to provide anti-inflammatory and anti-viral benefits. It boosts immune function by getting the body to produce more cytokines.  Cytokines are small proteins that control inflammation and immune function. More cytokines mean a stronger immune response. Elderberry is an important ingredient in this strong immune system support stack.

Elderberry Extract

Cellular Energy, ATP production, oxygen capacity

If you’ve spent any time looking for ways to support and boost your immune system, you are likely to have come across elderberry extract before. But, don’t be folded by their delicious blueberry looks; elderberry is not your average berry.  These little berries pack a health-promoting punch.

Why? It binds to the virus preventing it from reproducing and infecting your cells. This gets you feeling better, and faster. Especially effective against influenza, elderberry extract blocks the virus from spreading in your body. It has been used effectively for centuries in traditional medicine to address a host of ailments, not the least of which is supporting a stronger immune system.

Probiotics

Bacillus coagulans

Inner employs a probiotic called Bacillus Coagulans.  Probiotics are found naturally in your intestines. These are beneficial microorganisms that are believed to promote health and protect against infections. 

Bacillus coagulans is one of these great gut beneficial probiotics. It encourages a healthy immune system, normalizes nutrient absorption in the body, and helps balance gut flora. 

*NOTE: If you’re taking immunosuppressants, do not take Inner Armor without your health provider’s or oncologist’s consent.

More detail

Three of the additional biggest advantages of this  bacteria are:

  1. It can survive in an acidic medium – your intestines 
  2. Has a longer shelf life than others
  3. Remains stable under extreme high or low temperatures. This means your supply of Inner Armor will last longer.

Lactic acid is something athletes and people on the move want to reduce.  BUT, when it comes to the immune system, that’s not the case.  This is due to the fact that bacillus coagulans produce lactic acid inside the digestive tract which, in this case, encourages the growth of healthy bacteria while inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria. Lactic acid helps regulate healthy pH levels to encourage a balanced environment and inhibit the growth of bad bacteria.

This probiotic is thought to be a great way to stimulate your immune system, beefing up white blood cell counts and thus help getting the body’s immune defenses in “ready to attack virus mode.”  

Bacillus coagulans may help boost the immune system and stave off virus-induced respiratory tract infections (COVID-19 is a respiratory tract virus) such as the common cold and the flu, according to a small study published in Postgraduate Medicine in 2009. The study involved 10 healthy men and women, each of whom was given B. coagulans daily for 30 days.

After their 30-day treatment, all of the study members were exposed to adenovirus (which causes respiratory illness) and influenza A (a strain of flu virus). Researchers found that using it significantly increased the production of cells that play a key role in the body’s immune response.

We all have to fend off illness at one time or another, so if you do have to be on the offensive against illnesses or viruses, your immune system is already in a “ready state” to protect you.  This is the intent of Inner Armor.

And how about this as a significant beneficial side effect: it is believed to stimulate muscle recovery in athletes, lower insulin levels, and improve cholesterol levels.

Probiotics

Bacillus coagulans

Inner employs a probiotic called Bacillus Coagulans.  Probiotics are found naturally in your intestines. These are beneficial microorganisms that are believed to promote health and protect against infections. 

Bacillus coagulans is one of these great gut beneficial probiotics. It encourages a healthy immune system, normalizes nutrient absorption in the body, and helps balance gut flora. 

*NOTE: If you’re taking immunosuppressants, do not take Inner Armor without your health provider’s or oncologist’s consent.

Vitamin C

Do not be fooled but the usual suspect Vitamin C here. We all know vitamins are important, but few are as crucial to strong immune function as vitamin C. 

It acts as a potent antioxidant that, like elderberry, fights oxidative damage and supports optimal function of both the innate (broad and fast acting) and adaptive (specific and slow acting) branches of the immune system. In fact, as another aside, vitamin C deficiency has been linked to serious health issues including cancer, sickle cell anemia, poor wound healing, and, of course, scurvy.

More detail

Vitamin C maintains the strength and integrity of epithelial tissues, found in both our skin and guts, where the majority of our immune function is found. It does this by protecting cells from oxidative damage while knitting together certain amino acids to boost collagen production in these tissues. 

Collagen is a crucial component of our gut lining and, therefore, our immune function. It has the ability to make the gut virtually impenetrable by invading pathogens and provides a ripe environment for the probiotics in Inner Armor to work their magic.

Studies have shown vitamin C to effectively reduce both the rate and duration of upper respiratory tract infections. Elevated stress hormones, such as cortisol, suppress immune function and can make you sick. Vitamin C reduces these stress hormones which results in lowered inflammation levels and improved immune function. Vitamin C is a critical mucg wanted component of the Inner Armor synergistic stack.

Vitamin C

Do not be fooled but the usual suspect Vitamin C here. We all know vitamins are important, but few are as crucial to strong immune function as vitamin C. 

It acts as a potent antioxidant that, like elderberry, fights oxidative damage and supports optimal function of both the innate (broad and fast acting) and adaptive (specific and slow acting) branches of the immune system. In fact, as another aside, vitamin C deficiency has been linked to serious health issues including cancer, sickle cell anemia, poor wound healing, and, of course, scurvy.

Zinc Oxide

Nitric Oxide, Vasodilatation and Red Blood Cell Support.

Zinc is a mineral that has been gaining even more notoriety for its role in supporting the immune system. It is present in every cell and the second most plentiful trace mineral in the body. Zinc offers strong antioxidant effects, protecting your cells and tissues from oxidative damage that leads to inflammation and disease. Zinc keeps your immune system and body strong.

Zinc supplementation has been shown to substantially reduce the length of the common cold and other infections. It plays an important role in the body’s production of collagen, which, along with vitamin C, is crucial to gut health, immune function, and tissue healing.

Zinc Oxide

Nitric Oxide, Vasodilatation and Red Blood Cell Support.

Zinc is a mineral that has been gaining even more notoriety for its role in supporting the immune system. It is present in every cell and the second most plentiful trace mineral in the body. Zinc offers strong antioxidant effects, protecting your cells and tissues from oxidative damage that leads to inflammation and disease. Zinc keeps your immune system and body strong.

Zinc supplementation has been shown to substantially reduce the length of the common cold and other infections. It plays an important role in the body’s production of collagen, which, along with vitamin C, is crucial to gut health, immune function, and tissue healing.

Vitamin D3

Vitamin D acts as a signal in your body, turning certain processes off and on. Every cell in the body has a receptor site for vitamin D, including immune cells, to turn them on. This allows your immune system to respond to immune stimulants like beta glucans and elderberry extract to gain their full benefits.

Vitamin D supports the fast-acting innate immune system and is necessary to turn it on quickly to fight off invading pathogens. It also provides a regulating effect on the immune system to allow it to correctly identify the correct cells to attack.

Also called the sunshine vitamin, vitamin D3 is a fat-soluble vitamin necessary for optimal immune function. The body manufactures vitamin D with cholesterol in response to sunlight on the skin. Unfortunately, most of us don’t spend enough time outside and at least three-quarters of Americans are deficient in vitamin D.

Vitamin D3

Vitamin D acts as a signal in your body, turning certain processes off and on. Every cell in the body has a receptor site for vitamin D, including immune cells, to turn them on. This allows your immune system to respond to immune stimulants like beta glucans and elderberry extract to gain their full benefits.

Vitamin D supports the fast-acting innate immune system and is necessary to turn it on quickly to fight off invading pathogens. It also provides a regulating effect on the immune system to allow it to correctly identify the correct cells to attack.

Also called the sunshine vitamin, vitamin D3 is a fat-soluble vitamin necessary for optimal immune function. The body manufactures vitamin D with cholesterol in response to sunlight on the skin. Unfortunately, most of us don’t spend enough time outside and at least three-quarters of Americans are deficient in vitamin D.

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Summing Up The Synergistic Stack of Inner Armor

Each of the ingredients in Inner Armor has been strategically chosen for its tremendous benefit to the immune system at key points. Individually, they are effective, but together they are powerful – each ingredient enhancing the effects of the others. 

All Inner Armor ingredients are perfectly combined to provide a truly synergistic immune support supplement to keep your immune system at peak performance and you feeling your best all season long.

Scientific Studies

Yeast Beta Glucans

Beta glucans are sugars that are found in the cell walls of bacteria, fungi, yeasts, algae and plants. Because beta glucans are seen as foreign objects within the body, it can trigger the immune response. Both in vitro and in vivo studies in animals and humans have immune modulating properties [1]. Most notably, beta glucans can increase leukocyte activity and lymphocytes proliferation [2]. 

Leukocytes and lymphocytes are important parts of the immune system. They are white blood cells that are produced in the bone marrow and found in the blood and lymph tissue. Lymphocytes defend the body against foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and even cancer cells.

Beta glucans are readily recognized by the innate immune system, which makes it easy for the host’s defense response. Human cells, including neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells, all have receptors that can easily detect the presence of beta glucans, and result in intracellular signaling that stimulates the immune response [3].

Human clinical studies also show positive results. In one study where 250mg of a beta glucan supplement was provided to participants, there was a significant reduction in symptoms of upper respiratory infections in women [4].

Beta glucan supplementations also appears to improve symptoms and duration of the common cold [5,6]. In one study, it was found that participants given beta glucans had a decreased risk of getting a cold, and had less severe cold symptoms compared to placebo [5]. Another study shows that beta glucans resulted in 25% reduction in cold infections, 15% less symptoms, and had were more easily able to sleep during their cold infection [6].

References: 

  1. Volman JJ et al. Dietary modulation of immune function by beta-glucans. Physiology & Behavior. 2008;94(2):276-284.
  2. Sonck E, et al. The effect of beta glucans on porcine leukocytes. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2010; 135(3-4):199-207.
  3. Goodridge HS, et al. Beta glucan recognition by the innate immune system. Immunological Reviews. 2009;230(1):38-50.
  4. Talbott SM, et al. Baker’s yeast beta-glucan supplement reduces upper respiratory symptoms and improves mood state in stressed women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2012;31(4):295-300.
  5. Graugaum HJ et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled nutritional study using an insoluble yeast beta-glucan to improve the immune defense system. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2012;[3:73]8-746.
  6. Auinger A et al. Yeast (1,3)-(1,6)-beta-glucan helps to maintain the body’s defence against pathogens: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentric study in healthy subjects. Eur J Nutr. 2013;52(8):1913-8.

Elderberry

Elderberries have been traditionally used as medicine for many years, including to treat cancer and other disorders. The fruit of the elderberry contain polyphenols and anthocyanins, which act as antioxidants and fight free radicals. Anthocyanins can have anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer benefits.

The polyphenols in elderberry may have antioxidant properties, and may counteract oxidative stress. As a result, one paper suggests that elderberry’s polyphenols may have beneficial effects on blood pressure, glycaemia reduction, stimulating the immune system, and may prevent the formation of tumours [1].

Sambucol, a product that is based on an elderberry extract, has also been studied to show elderberry’s antiviral properties. In this study, Sambucol was very effective against 10 different strains of influenza and was also able to reduce the duration of fly symptoms by 3-4 days [2]. This study also showed that Sambucol was able to activate the immune system by increasing cytokine production [2].

Cytokines are small proteins that are involved in signaling between cells, and are produced by immune cells, such as lymphocytes and macrophages. Cytokines are also involved in controlling inflammation, as well as regulating the immune response [3].

Elderberry juice has also been shown to be an anti-viral by suppressing viral replication of human influenza A virus in vivo [4]. Similarly, another study showed that an elderberry extract was able to bind to the H1N1 virus, thus blocking its ability to infect host cells [5]. Finally, another study showed that patients with flu symptoms for 48 hours or less that were given elderberry syrup had relief from their symptoms 4 days earlier than placebo [6].

References:

  1. Sidor A, et al. Advanced research on the antioxidant and health benefit of elderberry (Sambucus nigra) in food – a review. Journal of Functional Foods. 2015;[18:94]1-958.
  2. Barak V, et al. The effect of Sambucol, a black elderberry-based, natural product, on the production of human cytokines: I. Inflammatory cytokines. European Cytokine Network. 2001.
  3. Opal SM et al. Anti-inflammatory cytokines. CHEST. 2000;117(4):1162-1172.
  4. Kinoshita E, et al. Anti-influenza virus effects of elderberry juice and its fractions. J-Stage. 2012;76(9):1633.
  5. Roscheck B, et al. Elderberry flavonoids bind to and prevent H1N1 infection in vitro. Phytochemistry. 2009;70(10):1255-1261.
  6. Zakay-Rones Z et al. Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of Influenza A and B virus infections. Journal of International Medical Research. 2004;[32:13]2-140.

Probiotics

Bacillus coagulans

Bacillus coagulans is a type of bacteria that is considered “beneficial”. Bacillus coagulans is considered beneficial because it has positive effects on digestion, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, gas, and for arthritis. 

There is growing evidence that probiotics are able to enhance the immune system. For example, in one study, individuals were exposed to adenovirus and influenza. Those that supplemented with Bacillus coagulans showed a significant increase in T-cell production [1].

Probiotics, such as Bacillus coagulans, can also aid the host in increasing absorption of nutrients and training the immune system to not attack itself, while non-beneficial bacterial can result in low absorption and sometimes disease [2]. For example, Bacillus coagulans contain metabolites that support the differentiation and maturation of antigen-presenting cells like macrophages and dendritic cells [3]. Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that engulfs and digest foreign substance, microbes, and even cancer cells. Dendritic cells process antigen material to present on the surface of T cells – essentially, they act as messengers between the innate and adaptive immune systems. In layman’s terms, this means that the metabolites of Bacillus coagulans are involved in immune regulation, in that if helps to decide whether T cells are triggered into action or not. 

A specific component of Bacillus coagulans has also been shown to reduce inflammation and also display immunomodulatory effects [4]. This immunomodulatory effects was also shown when supplemented to immune compromised elderly subjects. Results showed a significant improvement in Natural Killer cell activity over placebo [5]. Natural Killer cells are an important part of the immune system. They are a type of lymphocyte that are able to attach to tumour cells or cells that are infected with viruses, and essentially kill them by inserting compounds containing perforin, which destroys cells by creating lesions in their cell membrane.

References: 

  1. Baron M. Original research: a patented strain of Bacillus coagulans increased immune response to viral challenge. Postgraduate Medicine. 2009;121(2):114-118.
  2. Nell S, et al. The impact of the microbiota on the pathogenesis of IBD: lessons from mouse infection models. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;[8:56]4-577.
  3. Benson K, et al. Probiotic metabolites from Bacillus coagulans GanedanBC30 support maturation of antigen-presenting cells in vitro. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(16):1875-1883.
  4. Sudha R, et al. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of Bacillus coagulans unique IS2. International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics. 2015;10(1):31-36.
  5. Upadhyaya S, et al. Enhancement of natural killer cell activity in immuno-compromised elderly subjects by Bacillus coagulans. International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics. 2011;6(3/4).

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant and contributes to immune defense by supporting both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Vitamin C is able to support the functioning of the epithelial barrier, making it impermeable to pathogens [1]. Vitamin C is also important for the skin by promoting oxidant scavenging activity [2], which can help protect against environmental stressors such as UV radiation.

Deficiencies in Vitamin C is associated with many ailments. For example, in cancer patients, a deficiency in Vitamin C is seen [3]. Sickle cell anemia is also associated with Vitamin C deficiency [4]. Wound healing is also dependent on sufficient levels of Vitamin C. In one study, it was shown that adequate Vitamin C intake was required for normal wound healing and also for the maintenance of the scar tissue after healing [5]. One of the most classic cases of Vitamin C deficiency is scurvy. Scurvy is associated with weakness, reduced appetite, anemia, skin hemorrhages, and bruising, and is a direct result of Vitamin C deficiency. 

Vitamin C has also been shown to have direct benefits when supplemented. Studies show that Vitamin C supplementation can reduce the infection rate and duration of upper-respiratory tract infections in ultramarathon runners [6]. Vitamin C supplementation also results in reduced stress hormones and an anti-inflammatory response in runners [7]. This is important as stress hormones, such as cortisol, have been shown to suppress the immune response in animals [8].

References:

  1. Schoultz I et al. Indomethacin-induced translocation of bacteria across enteric epithelia is reactive oxygen species-dependent and reduced by Vitamin C. American Journal of Physiology. 2012.
  2. Darr D et al. Topical vitamin C protects porcine skin from ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. British Journal of Dermatology. 1992.
  3. Bennett MI et al. Vitamin C deficiency in cancer patients. Palliative Medicine. 2005;19(1).
  4. Chiu D et al. Vitamin C deficiency in patients with sickle cell anemia. The American Journal of Pediatric Hematologu/oncology. 1989;12(3):262-267.
  5. Pirani CL et al. Effect of Vitamin C deficiency on healed wounds. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 1953;82(1).
  6. Peters EM et al. Vitamin C supplementation reduces the incidence of postrace symptoms of upper-respiratory-tract infection in ultramarathon runners. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1993;57(2):170-174.
  7. Peters EM et al. Vitamin C supplementation attenuates the increase in circulating cortisol, adrenaline, and anti-inflammatory polypeptides following ultramarathon running. Int J Sports Med. 2001;22(7):537-543.
  8. Westly HJ et al. Physiological concentrations of cortisol suppress cell-mediated immune events in the domestic pig. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 1984. 

Vitamin D3

Vitamin D is an essential vitamin for overall health. Often referred to as the sunshine vitamin, there are 2 main types of Vitamin D: Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3. Vitamin D3 is the natural form of Vitamin D and is also known as cholecalciferol. Vitamin D2 is typically obtained from plant sources, whereas Vitamin D3 is obtained from animal sources, but is also produced in the body. There are differences in the way that the body absorbs these 2 types of Vitamin D. In general. Vitamin D3 is better absorbed than D2, making Vitamin D3 the preferred source. 

Vitamin D is important to maintain normal levels of calcium, which are important for strong bones and healthy teeth. Vitamin D is primarily involved in maintaining calcium homeostasis, as it stimulates calcium absorption through the intestine [1]. Without a healthy level of Vitamin D, calcium absorption is affected.

Calcium is very important for bone health and strength. Studies show that adequate intakes of dietary calcium can lead to greater bone mass through adolescence and into adulthood [2]. Similarly, inadequate calcium intakes early in life may lead to low bone mass [2]. As Vitamin D is involved in calcium absorption, it makes sense that Vitamin D will affect bone strength. Studies show that long-term calcium restriction or insufficient levels of Vitamin D may lead to fragile bones, as well as other ailments, such as high blood pressure, colon cancer and breast cancer [3].  Six-month supplementation of Vitamin D3 in elderly individuals also resulted in increasing lower limb muscle strength, presumably by increasing bone strength [4]. Evidence also supports calcium in combination with Vitamin D supplementation as a preventative treatment of osteoporosis in people over 50 years of age [5].

Vitamin D also plays an important role in the immune system. Key immune system cells, such as B cells and T cells, have Vitamin D receptors [6]. Through several mechanisms, Vitamin D decreases the production of inflammatory cytokines, and increases the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines [10]. Vitamin D also plays a role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Many studies have shown a link between inadequate levels of Vitamin D and a higher susceptibility to chronic infections and autoimmune diseases [7,9]. The hormonal form of Vitamin D also upregulates antimicrobial peptides that can help to clear out bacteria [8]. 

References:

  1. Christakos S et al. Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;347(1-2):25-29.
  2. Anderson J. Calcium, phosphorus and human bone development. The Journal of Nutrition. 1996;126(4):1153S-1158S.
  3. Barger-Lux MJ et al. The role of calcium intake in preventing bone fragility, hypertension, and certain cancers. The Journal of Nutrition. 1994;124(8):1406S-1411S.
  4. Pfrimer M et al. Treatment of Vitamin D deficiency increases lower limb muscle strength in institutionalized older people independently of regular physical activity: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2009;[54:29]1-300.
  5. Tang B et al. Use of calcium or calcium in combination with Vitamin D supplementation to prevent fractures and bone loss in people aged 50 years and older: a meta analysis. The Lancet.2007;370(9588):657-666.
  6. Aranow C. Vitamin D and the immune system. EB Symposium Manuscripts. 2011.
  7. Baeke F et al. Vitamin D: modulator of the immune system. Current Opinion in Pharmacology. 2010;10(4):482-496.
  8. Kamen DL et al. Vitamin D and molecular actions on the immune system: modulation of innate and autoimmunity. Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2010;[88:44]1-450.
  9. Aranow C. Vitamin D and the immune system. J Investig Med. 2011;59(6):881-886.
  10. Gregori S et al. Regulatory T cells induced by 1 alpha, 25-dihydoxyvitamin D3 and mycophenolate mofetil treatment mediate transplantation tolerance. J Immunol. 2001;167(4):1945-53.

Zinc

Zinc is a mineral that is important to the body. Among its benefits, zinc keeps the immune system strong, helps heal wounds, and supports normal growth. 

Zinc is critical for maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is required for the human body to activate T lymphocytes (T cells) [1]. T cells are a type of white blood cell that is an essential part of the immune system. T cells control and regulate immune responses, as well as attack infected or cancerous cells. Studies have shown that zinc deficiency can have negative effects on the immune system, such as making individuals more susceptible to a variety of pathogens [2].

There is some evidence to suggest the zinc can have positive effects on the common cold. In a controlled study, it was shown that the use of zinc lozenges can reduce the duration of the common cold [3]. Zinc also plays a role in wound healing, and is often used in ointments for skin irritations of diaper rash. Zinc is able to accelerate wound healing by increasing re-epithelialization, as well as decreasing inflammation and bacterial growth [4].

Zinc deficiency is associated with growth retardation, anemia, and impaired visual and immunological function [5]. Since zinc is essential for growth and development, the high rate of proliferation and differentiation of immune cells requires a sufficient supply of zinc. One of the mechanisms by which zinc works is via its role as a signaling ion in the immune system. For example, zinc ions promote activation of lymphocytes [6]. Zinc also plays a role in regulating inflammatory signaling [7]. In vitro zinc supplementation has also been shown to trigger the recruitment of leukocytes to the infection site [8]. Zinc is also involved in the proliferation of B cells and T cells [9]. Finally, zinc also regulates cytokines [10], which are peptides that are responsible for communication between the immune system and host tissue cells. 

References:

  1. Kaltenberg J, et al. Zinc signals promote IL-2-dependent proliferation of T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40(5):1496-503.
  2. Shankar AH, et al. Zinc and immune system: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection. Am J Clin Nutr.1998;68(2 Suppl):447S-463S.
  3. Hemila H. Zinc lozenges may shorten the duration of colds: a systematic review. Open Respir Med J. 2011;[5:51]-58.
  4. Pories WJ, et al. Acceleration of healing with zinc sulfate. Ann Surg. 1967;165(3):432-436.
  5. Ibs KH, et al. Zinc-altered immune function. J Nutr. 2003;1[33:14]52S-1456S.
  6. Huse M, et al. A ZN2+ ion links the cytoplasmic tail of CD4 and the N-terminal region of Lck. J Biol Chem. 1998;2[73:18]729=18733.
  7. Haase H, et al. Zinc signals are essential for lipopolysaccharide-induced signal transduction in monocytes. J Immunol. 2008;1[81:64]91-6502.
  8. Hujanen ES, et al. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis induced by zinc, copper and nickel in vitro. Biochem Biophys Acta. 1995;12[45:14]5-152.
  9. Flynn A. Control of in vitro lymphocyte proliferation by cooper, magnesium and zinc deficiency. J Nutr. 1984;1[14:20]34-2042.
  10. Wellinghausen N, et al. The immunobiology of zinc. Immunol Today. 1997;[18:51]9-521.

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