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Oxcia

Designed to increase strength and endurance!

Oxcia

Providing more power and a faster recovery.

Oxcia

A biological edge to increase your body's
energy, endurance, and recovery!

Oxcia

Designed to increase strength and endurance!

Oxcia

Providing more power and a faster recovery.

Oxcia

Providing more power and a faster recovery.

Oxcia

From: $47.37 every 3 months

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Oxcia

Vasodilatation & Blood Oxygenation Support System

Oxcia supports clean, natural energy production via a priority formula, delivering high volume blood oxygenation & Vasodilation. We affectionately refer to it as a healthy, clean & simple “brute force” or “pure force” oxygen delivery vehicle system made for people who move.

Oxcia is unique, different than other formulas. While we use well documented ratios within the formula, it’s the source, and the timing of how we source these highest quality ingredients that produce superior results, benefits you’ve not received with other support supplements. We also moved to a tablet form to offer the intended benefit of slow release so you’ll get better, and longer, support.

BioTrōpic Oxcia, like our other apex supplements, is a clean, energy sustaining biological edge sports supplement containing apex-class, sports performance ingredients. It allows you to exercise or train at successively higher levels with less effort, delivering superior results in training and competition.

CITRULLINE
CITRULLINE
Nitric Oxide, Vasodilatation and Red Blood Cell Support.
MALATE
MALATE
Reduces ammonia level in blood and can also help maintain blood sugar during exercise.
CORDYCEPS SINESIS
CORDYCEPS SINESIS
Cellular Energy, ATP production, oxygen capacity.

Oxcia

Vasodilatation & Blood Oxygenation Support System

Oxcia supports clean, natural energy production via a priority formula, delivering high volume blood oxygenation & Vasodilation. We affectionately refer to it as a healthy, clean & simple “brute force” or “pure force” oxygen delivery vehicle system made for people who move.

Oxcia is unique, different than other formulas. While we use well documented ratios within the formula, it’s the source, and the timing of how we source these highest quality ingredients that produce superior results, benefits you’ve not received with other support supplements. We also moved to a tablet form to offer the intended benefit of slow release so you’ll get better, and longer, support.

BioTrōpic Oxcia, like our other apex supplements, is a clean, energy sustaining biological edge sports supplement containing apex-class, sports performance ingredients. It allows you to exercise or train at successively higher levels with less effort, delivering superior results in training and competition.

CITRULLINE
CITRULLINE
Nitric Oxide, Vasodilatation and Red Blood Cell Support.
MALATE
MALATE
Reduces ammonia level in blood and can also help maintain blood sugar during exercise.
CORDYCEPS SINESIS
CORDYCEPS SINESIS
Cellular Energy, ATP production, oxygen capacity.

Oxcia

Vasodilatation & Blood Oxygenation Support System

Oxcia supports clean, natural energy production via a priority formula, delivering high volume blood oxygenation & Vasodilation. We affectionately refer to it as a healthy, clean & simple “brute force” or “pure force” oxygen delivery vehicle system made for people who move.

Oxcia is unique, different than other formulas. While we use well documented ratios within the formula, it’s the source, and the timing of how we source these highest quality ingredients that produce superior results, benefits you’ve not received with other support supplements. We also moved to a tablet form to offer the intended benefit of slow release so you’ll get better, and longer, support.

BioTrōpic Oxcia, like our other apex supplements, is a clean, energy sustaining biological edge sports supplement containing apex-class, sports performance ingredients. It allows you to exercise or train at successively higher levels with less effort, delivering superior results in training and competition.

CITRULLINE
CITRULLINE
Nitric Oxide, Vasodilatation and Red Blood Cell Support.
MALATE
MALATE
Reduces ammonia level in blood and can also help maintain blood sugar during exercise.
CORDYCEPS SINESIS
CORDYCEPS SINESIS
Cellular Energy, ATP production, oxygen capacity.

Perfect Synergies

This stack of ingredients acts like a HIGH POWERED RELAY TEAM,
each ingredient handing the baton off to the next athlete-ingredient in the series.

Citrulline

takes the baton converting nitrates to nitric oxide causing vasodilatation (expansion of blood vessel walls) supporting deliver of higher oxygen rich blood, delivered to hard working muscles.

Malate

activates a biochemical pathway that results in the ammonia levels dropping. Malic acid can also help maintain blood sugar during exercise.

Cordyceps Senesis

is next up supporting highly coveted Adenosine Triphosphate production (ATP) production, the equivalent to charging up your “electrical system,” your body’s battery power pack. This boost gives you more energy to train and compete with. It is also believed to offer oxygen carrying capabilities offering additional oxygen transport.

Another great stacked supplement supporting people who move.

citrulline-malate-full

Citrulline

Let’s Break It Down -The Power of L-Citrulline

There’s L-citrulline, and there’s L-citrulline. We spent the time to find the latter…..

L-citrulline is a well-documented vasodilator meaning it expands the walls of your blood vessels thus supporting more blood (in our case, more oxygenated blood) to reach where it’s needed most – your hard training muscles.

How does this work? There’s a ton of research on this, but to put it simply, L-citrulline is an amino acid that gets converted into L-arginine and L-ornithine. But, L-citrulline has more bioavailability than L-arginine itself, so it can be more easily absorbed into the body. Due its well documented vasodilatation capabilities, L-citrulline and L-arginine can provide you with a one-two punch so you can get a real boost out of your training via its vasodilatation capabilities. But we can’t stop just here…..

We made it stronger for athletes

Let’s double up. How about a compounded effect! There are very strong studies that show when taken separately, both L-citrulline & malic acid are believed to provide superior vasodilatation effects. This is critical for athletes who want more “good stuff” flowing and piling into their muscles when training and competing. Further, studies show that taking malic acid in combination with L-citrulline is far more superior that when supplementing with L-citrulline alone. This is more of a great thing getting to your engine when you need it most is what we all seek.

Finally, let’s triple up, the “Tri-pounded” effect…..

We took what we believed to be a quantum leap forward: we believe the real magic occurs when these two support agents are combined with a third supplement, wild grown and powerful Cordyseps Sinesis.

Why Cordyseps? Because it is believed to be a very strong blood oxygenator delivery agent. It iw believed that Cordyseps Sinesis is a superior oxygen release agent due to its unique polysacroid structure which, when ingested, releases this oxygen “string” into the bloodstream supporting higher degrees of blood oxygenation.

This trifecta of combining the superior vasodilatation of L-citrulline & Malic Acid with the oxygenating polysacroides of Cordyseps Senisis creates a rushing river of bloodstream rich, oxygen carrying blood and natural fuel to your muscles when you need it most. We believe this makes this the perfect, purest oxygen delivery vehicle available, superior to all else.

Best Natural Source Highest Quality, Clean Earth Harvested

Inside Knowledge – What Most People Don’t Know

With this in mind, we believe there’s a “secret” to sourcing the highest quality of this well documented vasodilator. There are many natural sources of L-citrulline but watermelon has among the highest quality and quantity, if not the highest. It also contains malic acid, but we source it for its L-citrulline where It can be found in the seeds, flesh, and the rind, but we already know this. But did you know that the highest levels of L-citrulline can be found in seedless watermelon? Source does indeed matter.

To create the best vasodilation oxygenation vehicle on the market, we have 3 strict criteria that have to be met: our L-citrulline must be sourced from 1) watermelon, 2) specifically, from a seedless variety, and to ensure the absolute highest quantity, 3) the watermelon must have been harvested at its ripest moment because studies say this is when its L-citrulline is at its peak abundance. I’ll bet you didn’t know that!

But there’s more…..

For athletes, L-citrulline may help to keep you at your physical peak by:

  • Reducing fatigue during high volume training
  • Increasing endurance for prolonged exercise or athletic performance
  • Reducing muscle soreness, so you can recover faster
  • Increasing nitric oxide and L-arginine
  • Increasing work capacity
  • Increasing blood flow to your muscles and tissues
  • Improving circulation
  • Supporting healthy blood pressure and boosting the immune system
  • Enhancing recovery from an intense workout
More detail

Immune Support

A double-blind study with healthy young males showed that L-citrulline may enhance the immune response by increasing the action of a type of white blood cell in the body. L-citrulline is also believed to protect you from cell damage that can occur during high activity. During exercise, reactive oxygen species can form that can potentially damage your muscles and other cells in the body. L-citrulline exerts anti-oxidant activity to help protect your cells from oxidative damage that can occur during exercise.

Increased Blood Flow

During exercise, your muscles need more oxygen and nutrients to generate energy. L-citrulline is a precursor to L-arginine, which then can be converted into nitric oxide (NO). NO is involved in the vasodilation of blood vessels and also helps to keep your blood vessels healthy and flexible. Nitric oxide also acts as an antioxidant and may also reduce inflammation.

Vasodilation, as a result of nitric oxide, widens the blood vessels, allowing more oxygen and nutrients to reach your muscles, leading to better performance. Vasodilation also allows for the fast removal of waste products, like lactic acid and ammonia, which can lead to that feeling of fatigue.

Better Endurance and Reduced Fatigue

L-citrulline is often used by athletes that are looking to prolong their exercise. Studies show that citrulline supplementation reduces the time to exhaustion and athletes have noted a decrease in the rate of perceived exertion.

L-citrulline also acts as an ammonia buffer, preventing its accumulation in the body. Ammonia is produced by the body during exercise, and high amounts are correlated with signs of fatigue. By preventing ammonia build-up, L-citrulline can reduce fatigue, and increase athletic performance.

Muscle Synthesis

Preliminary studies suggest that L-citrulline can increase muscle protein synthesis, while also inhibiting the degradation of muscle protein. This may be important for endurance athletes who do not want to lose muscle mass.

L-citrulline may also be related to an increase in growth hormone, which may contribute to muscle synthesis.

ATP Synthesis

On the cellular level, ATP, also known as adenosine triphosphate, is our body’s source of “fuel” and energy. ATP is produced in mitochondria, which converts nutrients and oxygen into energy, and is responsible for keeping our bodies going. L-citrulline can improve ATP synthesis efficiency by increasing ATP production. This ensures that your body is strong so you can perform your best.

citrulline-malate-full

Citrulline

Let’s Break It Down -The Power of L-Citrulline

There’s L-citrulline, and there’s L-citrulline. We spent the time to find the latter…..

L-citrulline is a well-documented vasodilator meaning it expands the walls of your blood vessels thus supporting more blood (in our case, more oxygenated blood) to reach where it’s needed most – your hard training muscles.

How does this work? There’s a ton of research on this, but to put it simply, L-citrulline is an amino acid that gets converted into L-arginine and L-ornithine. But, L-citrulline has more bioavailability than L-arginine itself, so it can be more easily absorbed into the body. Due its well documented vasodilatation capabilities, L-citrulline and L-arginine can provide you with a one-two punch so you can get a real boost out of your training via its vasodilatation capabilities. But we can’t stop just here…..

We made it stronger for athletes

Let’s double up. How about a compounded effect! There are very strong studies that show when taken separately, both L-citrulline & malic acid are believed to provide superior vasodilatation effects. This is critical for athletes who want more “good stuff” flowing and piling into their muscles when training and competing. Further, studies show that taking malic acid in combination with L-citrulline is far more superior that when supplementing with L-citrulline alone. This is more of a great thing getting to your engine when you need it most is what we all seek.

Finally, let’s triple up, the “Tri-pounded” effect…..

We took what we believed to be a quantum leap forward: we believe the real magic occurs when these two support agents are combined with a third supplement, wild grown and powerful Cordyseps Sinesis.

Why Cordyseps? Because it is believed to be a very strong blood oxygenator delivery agent. It iw believed that Cordyseps Sinesis is a superior oxygen release agent due to its unique polysacroid structure which, when ingested, releases this oxygen “string” into the bloodstream supporting higher degrees of blood oxygenation.

This trifecta of combining the superior vasodilatation of L-citrulline & Malic Acid with the oxygenating polysacroides of Cordyseps Senisis creates a rushing river of bloodstream rich, oxygen carrying blood and natural fuel to your muscles when you need it most. We believe this makes this the perfect, purest oxygen delivery vehicle available, superior to all else.

Best Natural Source Highest Quality, Clean Earth Harvested

Inside Knowledge – What Most People Don’t Know

With this in mind, we believe there’s a “secret” to sourcing the highest quality of this well documented vasodilator. There are many natural sources of L-citrulline but watermelon has among the highest quality and quantity, if not the highest. It also contains malic acid, but we source it for its L-citrulline where It can be found in the seeds, flesh, and the rind, but we already know this. But did you know that the highest levels of L-citrulline can be found in seedless watermelon? Source does indeed matter.

To create the best vasodilation oxygenation vehicle on the market, we have 3 strict criteria that have to be met: our L-citrulline must be sourced from 1) watermelon, 2) specifically, from a seedless variety, and to ensure the absolute highest quantity, 3) the watermelon must have been harvested at its ripest moment because studies say this is when its L-citrulline is at its peak abundance. I’ll bet you didn’t know that!

But there’s more…..

For athletes, L-citrulline may help to keep you at your physical peak by:

  • Reducing fatigue during high volume training
  • Increasing endurance for prolonged exercise or athletic performance
  • Reducing muscle soreness, so you can recover faster
  • Increasing nitric oxide and L-arginine
  • Increasing work capacity
  • Increasing blood flow to your muscles and tissues
  • Improving circulation
  • Supporting healthy blood pressure and boosting the immune system
  • Enhancing recovery from an intense workout
More detail

Immune Support

A double-blind study with healthy young males showed that L-citrulline may enhance the immune response by increasing the action of a type of white blood cell in the body. L-citrulline is also believed to protect you from cell damage that can occur during high activity. During exercise, reactive oxygen species can form that can potentially damage your muscles and other cells in the body. L-citrulline exerts anti-oxidant activity to help protect your cells from oxidative damage that can occur during exercise.

Increased Blood Flow

During exercise, your muscles need more oxygen and nutrients to generate energy. L-citrulline is a precursor to L-arginine, which then can be converted into nitric oxide (NO). NO is involved in the vasodilation of blood vessels and also helps to keep your blood vessels healthy and flexible. Nitric oxide also acts as an antioxidant and may also reduce inflammation.

Vasodilation, as a result of nitric oxide, widens the blood vessels, allowing more oxygen and nutrients to reach your muscles, leading to better performance. Vasodilation also allows for the fast removal of waste products, like lactic acid and ammonia, which can lead to that feeling of fatigue.

Better Endurance and Reduced Fatigue

L-citrulline is often used by athletes that are looking to prolong their exercise. Studies show that citrulline supplementation reduces the time to exhaustion and athletes have noted a decrease in the rate of perceived exertion.

L-citrulline also acts as an ammonia buffer, preventing its accumulation in the body. Ammonia is produced by the body during exercise, and high amounts are correlated with signs of fatigue. By preventing ammonia build-up, L-citrulline can reduce fatigue, and increase athletic performance.

Muscle Synthesis

Preliminary studies suggest that L-citrulline can increase muscle protein synthesis, while also inhibiting the degradation of muscle protein. This may be important for endurance athletes who do not want to lose muscle mass.

L-citrulline may also be related to an increase in growth hormone, which may contribute to muscle synthesis.

ATP Synthesis

On the cellular level, ATP, also known as adenosine triphosphate, is our body’s source of “fuel” and energy. ATP is produced in mitochondria, which converts nutrients and oxygen into energy, and is responsible for keeping our bodies going. L-citrulline can improve ATP synthesis efficiency by increasing ATP production. This ensures that your body is strong so you can perform your best.

Malic Acid

Malate, or malic acid as it is often referred to, is an organic compound that is often found in fruits. Like L-citrulline, we source our Malic acid from sources that are known to have the highest quality and quantity. That’s that source? Apples.

Malic acid can support athletes in several ways, including:

  • Boosting energy levels
  • Aiding in recovery after intense training
  • Enhancing anti-oxidant activity
  • Improving physical stamina
  • Improving blood flow

Reduced Ammonia

During high bouts of exercise, ammonia concentration can increase in the blood, which is associated with fatigue. Malic acid activates a biochemical pathway that results in the ammonia levels dropping. Malic acid can also help maintain blood sugar during exercise

Increased Physical Stamina and Energy

Malic acid is an important part of the Krebs cycle, which converts food into energy and water for the body. Without malic acid, energy cannot be produced, and fatigue will set in.

Studies also suggest that Malate improves physical stamina, by increasing the time to exhaustion in a swimming exercise.

Increased Blood Flow

During exercise, your muscles need extra oxygen and nutrients to generate energy. Malate leads to the vasodilation of blood vessels. This action widens the blood vessels, so that your muscles and cells can get nutrients and oxygen easier and faster and convert it into ATP. At the same time, it allows for the fast removal of lactic acid and ammonia.

Other Benefits of Malate

It can improve the level of antioxidants after exercise. This can decrease the level of lipid peroxidation, protecting your cells from damage.

Synergistic Effects of L-citrulline & Malic Acid

L-citrulline and malic acid react to form L-citrulline malate, which among a whole host of other things, can:

  • Increase endurance and pump significantly
  • Attain high rates of ATP production
  • Enhance athletic performance
  • Relieve muscle soreness

L-citrulline malate can enhance the use of other amino acids during exercise, particularly branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). BCAAs have many benefits for athletes, including decreasing the breakdown of muscle proteins during exercise. Leucine, one of the BCAAs, is also involved in protein synthesis in muscles. BCAAs also play an important role in muscle recovery.

Improved Athletic Performance

Many studies have shown that L-citrulline malate can improve athletic performance. Notable Studies (make Studies a link to our Studies page) on athletes include:

  • Masters tennis players showing greater peak power and grip strength when supplemented with L-citrulline malate.
  • Athletes had a higher number of repetitions in several exercises, including leg press, hack squats, leg extensions, chin ups, reverse chin ups, and push ups.
  • Athletes had a higher number of repetitions in free-weight bench presses and a 40% decrease in muscle soreness.
mallate-full
mallate-full

Malic Acid

Malate, or malic acid as it is often referred to, is an organic compound that is often found in fruits. Like L-citrulline, we source our Malic acid from sources that are known to have the highest quality and quantity. That’s that source? Apples.

Malic acid can support athletes in several ways, including:

  • Boosting energy levels
  • Aiding in recovery after intense training
  • Enhancing anti-oxidant activity
  • Improving physical stamina
  • Improving blood flow

Reduced Ammonia

During high bouts of exercise, ammonia concentration can increase in the blood, which is associated with fatigue. Malic acid activates a biochemical pathway that results in the ammonia levels dropping. Malic acid can also help maintain blood sugar during exercise

Increased Physical Stamina and Energy

Malic acid is an important part of the Krebs cycle, which converts food into energy and water for the body. Without malic acid, energy cannot be produced, and fatigue will set in.

Studies also suggest that Malate improves physical stamina, by increasing the time to exhaustion in a swimming exercise.

Increased Blood Flow

During exercise, your muscles need extra oxygen and nutrients to generate energy. Malate leads to the vasodilation of blood vessels. This action widens the blood vessels, so that your muscles and cells can get nutrients and oxygen easier and faster and convert it into ATP. At the same time, it allows for the fast removal of lactic acid and ammonia.

Other Benefits of Malate

It can improve the level of antioxidants after exercise. This can decrease the level of lipid peroxidation, protecting your cells from damage.

Synergistic Effects of L-citrulline & Malic Acid

L-citrulline and malic acid react to form L-citrulline malate, which among a whole host of other things, can:

  • Increase endurance and pump significantly
  • Attain high rates of ATP production
  • Enhance athletic performance
  • Relieve muscle soreness

L-citrulline malate can enhance the use of other amino acids during exercise, particularly branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). BCAAs have many benefits for athletes, including decreasing the breakdown of muscle proteins during exercise. Leucine, one of the BCAAs, is also involved in protein synthesis in muscles. BCAAs also play an important role in muscle recovery.

Improved Athletic Performance

Many studies have shown that L-citrulline malate can improve athletic performance. Notable Studies (make Studies a link to our Studies page) on athletes include:

  • Masters tennis players showing greater peak power and grip strength when supplemented with L-citrulline malate.
  • Athletes had a higher number of repetitions in several exercises, including leg press, hack squats, leg extensions, chin ups, reverse chin ups, and push ups.
  • Athletes had a higher number of repetitions in free-weight bench presses and a 40% decrease in muscle soreness.
prod-chlor_cordyceps_militaris_1

Cordyceps Sinesis

Cellular Energy, ATP production, oxygen capacity

The use of Cordyceps by athletes stems from the publicity surrounding the remarkable performance exhibited by the Chinese Women’s Track and Field team at the Chinese National games in 1993. In that competition, 9 world records were broken, and not just by a little bit, but by startling amounts! The team had recruited sports medicine experts from Europe, and their diets boiled down to a distinct recipe – the most notable ingredient of course being Cordyceps Sinesis.

More detail

Cordyceps In Action

  • Increase ATP, Your Body’s Battery Pack
  • Oxygen Carrying Capacities
  • Contains a plethora of other exceptional nutrients such as proteins, nucleic acid, a variety of vitamins and minerals, as well as polysaccharides and beta-glucans, which have both been shown to be useful in improving immunity.

Cordyceps sinensis has been shown to increase ATP (adenosine triphosphate) levels in the body by almost 28%. ATP is the body’s energy supply source, the body’s battery, so to speak, and is required for all enzyme processes.

Among the key benefits that this supplement provides is an increase in muscle excitability, allowing your muscles to better respond to neural input, and an increase in muscular contraction strength, providing your muscles with a greater capacity to contract and shorten.

Put simply, ATP is the basic fuel for our bodies. More ATP means more fuel for health and athletic performance, allowing us to train harder for longer. In addition, Cordyceps boosts oxygen capacity, increases recovery time, and offers immunity battling properties. Increased ATP and oxygen capacity are two major components that increase energy at a cellular level.

prod-chlor_cordyceps_militaris_1

Cordyceps Sinesis

Cellular Energy, ATP production, oxygen capacity

The use of Cordyceps by athletes stems from the publicity surrounding the remarkable performance exhibited by the Chinese Women’s Track and Field team at the Chinese National games in 1993. In that competition, 9 world records were broken, and not just by a little bit, but by startling amounts! The team had recruited sports medicine experts from Europe, and their diets boiled down to a distinct recipe – the most notable ingredient of course being Cordyceps Sinesis.

More detail

Cordyceps In Action

  • Increase ATP, Your Body’s Battery Pack
  • Oxygen Carrying Capacities
  • Contains a plethora of other exceptional nutrients such as proteins, nucleic acid, a variety of vitamins and minerals, as well as polysaccharides and beta-glucans, which have both been shown to be useful in improving immunity.

Cordyceps sinensis has been shown to increase ATP (adenosine triphosphate) levels in the body by almost 28%. ATP is the body’s energy supply source, the body’s battery, so to speak, and is required for all enzyme processes.

Among the key benefits that this supplement provides is an increase in muscle excitability, allowing your muscles to better respond to neural input, and an increase in muscular contraction strength, providing your muscles with a greater capacity to contract and shorten.

Put simply, ATP is the basic fuel for our bodies. More ATP means more fuel for health and athletic performance, allowing us to train harder for longer. In addition, Cordyceps boosts oxygen capacity, increases recovery time, and offers immunity battling properties. Increased ATP and oxygen capacity are two major components that increase energy at a cellular level.

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The ingredients in detail…

Citrulline

Benefits and Claims

L-citrulline is a precursor for L-arginine and ornithine.

L-citrulline is more easily absorbed than L-arginine, and thus, may be a better source of arginine than arginine itself (1). In fact, oral supplementation of citrulline in humans has been shown to double plasma arginine concentrations (2).

Citrulline may play a role in learning and memory. Citrulline has been found to be expressed in higher concentrations in the hippocampus of trained rats relative to untrained rats in a cognitive test (4).

Citrulline, being a precursor for arginine, may also provide benefits for the cardiovascular system. In one study, it was found that an injection of 3g of citrulline reduced pulmonary artery blood pressure (5). In prehypertensive individuals, citrulline (dosage of 1350mg twice per day for 6 weeks) reduced aortic and brachial blood pressure and aortic systolic blood pressure (6). In younger individuals, supplemental arginine (which can result from citrulline) could decrease the rise in blood pressure that is associated with high cholesterol (7).

Citrulline is also used as a pro-erectile agent and used for men with erectile dysfunction (18).

There is some evidence, although not conclusive, that L-citrulline could support mood, and have a beneficial effect on depression, mood, anxiety, and cognitive function. As stated previously, citrulline is a precursor for ornithine. Studies on ornithine was shown to reduce acute mental stress and reduces anxiety-like behaviour in rodents (23).

Benefits for Sports

L-citrulline is a precursor of arginine, which is involved in vasodilation of blood vessels. Vasodilation is the process where blood vessels relax and widen, allowing for greater blood flow to the muscle cells. This allows for an increase in oxygen and nutrients, which are sources of energy, to muscles. In addition, it allows for faster and easier removal of waste products, such as lactic acid and ammonia. Increased vasodilation can result in increased aerobic energy production, reduced lactic acid, increased training capacity, increased lactic threshold, improved muscle pump, improved vascularity, and faster recovery.

L-citrulline supplementation results in reduced fatigue and improved endurance for both aerobic and anaerobic prolonged exercise (REF). One study demonstrated that citrulline at a dosage of 250mg/kg bodyweight increased anaerobic performance in both rats and mice (10,13). Some evidence also suggests that L-citrulline supplementation improved power output during exercise. For example, force output in exercise was increased by 23% with citrulline dosage of 3g/kg (10).

Citrulline can accelerate depletion of BCAAs induced by prolonged exercise by increasing their utilization as fuel (3). In this study, supplementation of citrulline resulted in a significant increase of plasma levels of citrulline, arginine, ornithine, urea, creatinine and nitrite, and significantly decreased the isoleucine concentration from basal measures to after exercise. The increase in growth hormone was also higher in the citrulline supplemented group. Overall, supplementation enhanced the use of amino acids, especially branched chain amino acids, during exercise, and enhanced the production of arginine-derived metabolites, such as nitrite, creatinine, ornithine, and urea.

Citrulline was also noted to reduce time to exhaustion. In a study with incline treadmill walking, individuals supplemented with 3g citrulline over 24 hours noted a reduction in time to exhaustion and an increase in the rate of perceived exertion (17). In addition, this study found that citrulline prevented an increase in insulin that is typical with exercise.

Citrulline was found to increase muscular ATP efficiency (10) by increasing the efficiency of energy production. In addition, citrulline attenuates muscle fatigue (12).

Citrulline also appears to play a role in protein synthesis. In one study, citrulline was shown to restore muscle protein synthesis (14) and muscular function following food restriction (15).

Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell and are among the first immune cells to arrive at a site of infection. In cyclists that were treated with L-citrulline, neutrophils undergo an oxidative burst (24). Oxidative burst is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated by neutrophils, which results in a hypochlorite ion (OCl-) which is a powerful oxidant and antimicrobial agent, that can damage cell membranes, genetic material, and cause cell death. The hypochlorite ion can lead to cell death of bacterial pathogens, thus, protecting the host’s cells from damage, including oxidative damage that can occur from exercise.

How It Works

L-citrulline increases ornithine and arginine plasma content. After consumption, L-citrulline is converted into arginine in the kidneys, which in turn, increases the arginine content in the plasma. Over longer periods of time, L-citrulline increases arginine plasma levels. This occurs via the nitric oxide cycle and the urea cycle, where citrillune gets converted into arginine and ornithine. Arginine is the main precursor of nitric oxide (NO). NO, in turn, plays an important role in the body, such as regulating vasodilation, blood flow, inhibits platelet aggregation, and mitochondrial respiration. NO initiates and maintains vasodilation via a set of pathways that result in the relaxation of smooth muscle cells that line arteries, veins and lymphatics. This results in increased blood flow to the muscle cells.

Supplemental citrulline modulates enzymes that are involved in glycogenolysis, a process for glycogen breakdown, and glycolysis, a process for the conversion of glucose into ATP. These enzymes are believed to shift muscle from aerobic energy metabolism to anaerobic energy metabolism (8). Studies suggest that an increase in anaerobic energy metabolism results from a change in mitchondrial function (19). When citrulline was supplemented at 6000mg for 3 days, ATP production was also increased from aerobic pathways (9). It is unlikely that this is a direct result of citrulline. Instead, it is likely that malate, which is an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, is dehydrogenated to oxaloacetate. Oxaloacetate is a critical control point for aerobic ATP production. Other TCA intermediates are also increased with citrulline supplementation, which also affects the influx and outflux of intermediates in and out of the TCA cycle. It is interesting to note that at the onset of exercise, the influx of carbon into the TCA cycle exceeds the removal of TCA intermediates; however, with prolonged exercise, this process is reversed (20). Researchers believe that without an increase in TCA intermediates (such as when citrulline is absent), the flux through the TCA cycle is decreased, resulting in muscle fatigue. In contrast, with citrulline, there is an increase in TCA intermediates and flux through the TCA cycle is increased, leading to greater ATP production, and a reduction in fatigue. Thus, an increase in TCA intermediates can be seen as a way of obtaining higher levels of aerobic energy production.

Citrulline also acts as an acid and ammonia buffer (11), where it can prevent the accumulation of ammonia (13). In the body, ammonia is a signal for muscle fatigue. As ammonia accumulates in the body, the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA is inhibited, which obstructs the ability of the muscles to contract (12). During exercise, ATP (cellular energy) is broken down into ADP, ammonia, inorganic phosphates, lactate and hydrogen ions. An increase in ammonia and ADP means that there is less ATP in the plasma, contributing to fatigue.

Citrulline has an effect on muscle protein synthesis by increasing muscle protein synthesis and inhibiting muscle protein degradation (20). Some researchers suggest that the muscle anabolic effect of citrulline could be mediated through the stimulation of anabolic hormone secretions via citrulline-induced increases in arginine concentrations. As demonstrated in several studies, citrulline supplementation increased plasma levels of arginine and ornithine. Arginine and ornithine, in turn, stimulate insulin (21) and growth hormone secretion.

It has also been suggested that citrulline can restore muscle protein synthesis by activating the mTORc1 pathway. The mTOR pathway is a signaling pathway that regulates the synthesis of skeletal muscle protein. Previous studies have shown that essential amino acids, particularly leucine, can activate the mTOR pathway, resulting in stimulation of the muscle protein synthesis process. With citrulline supplementation, there is an increase in proteins that are downstream of the mTORc1 pathway, indicating that citrulline activates this specific pathway (22).

L-Malate (Malic Acid)

Benefits and Claims for Sports

Malic acid can boost energy levels. Malic acid is an important component in the Krebs cycle, where carbohydrates, proteins and fats are converted into energy and water for the body. Without sufficient levels of malic acid in the body, the Krebs cycle does not function properly, leading to fatigue.

Malic acid aids in exercise recovery by counteracting the buildup of lactic acid (8). This may be a result of vasodilation which widens the blood vessels, making it easier for waste products to be removed.

A bioactive polymer, called beta hydroxyalkanoate, that is derived from malic acid was also shown to significantly increase muscle regeneration and maturation (4). Malic acid does so by increasing wound healing. In addition, in vivo studies show that crushed muscles of rats showed a higher density of regenerated myotubes compared to control when treated with the bioactive polymer (4).

Supplementation of malate may improve the level of antioxidants after exercise, thus increasing the total antioxidant capacity and decreasing the level of lipid peroxidation (6).

L-malate can improve physical stamina and minimizing muscle damage during exercise (7). In a study conducted on mice, mice that were administered with L-malate had an increase in the enzyme activities of cytosolic and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase, which are indicative of increased energy metabolism in the liver (7). In addition, mice that were treated with L-malate swam for a significantly longer time before they became exhausted. Stamina and endurance were improved.

Malate can also result in increased production of nitric oxide, which can lead to vasodilation of the blood vessels. Vasodilation regulates functions of the mammalian muscle, including contractions of the muscle, allows for faster delivery of nutrients and oxygen, and muscle fiber repair (14). Vasodilation is the process where blood vessels relax and widen, allowing for greater blood flow to the muscle cells. This allows for an increase in oxygen and nutrients, which are sources of energy, to muscles. In addition, it allows for faster and easier removal of waste products, such as lactic acid and ammonia. Increased vasodilation can result in increased aerobic energy production, reduced lactic acid, increased training capacity, increased lactic threshold, improved muscle pump, improved vascularity, and faster recovery. Malate enhances blood flow by encouraging nitric oxide production, thereby ensuring that cells have plenty of oxygen to go through the Krebs cycle. The Krebs cycle includes processes that produce ATP, cellular energy, and removes lactic acid, which is associated with muscle fatigue.

How It Works

Malic acid (L-malate) is an important intermediate for metabolism as it acts as a catalyst in the Krebs cycle. It increases energy production by burning pyruvic acid. The Krebs cycle generates large amounts of cellular energy that is required for life. Any disruption on the Krebs cycle, which can result from a deficiency in energy substrates, inherited disease states, or physical stress, can lead to inhibition of normal energy production. This can result in a wide range of metabolic disturbances and symptoms. Malate, which is an intermediary in the Krebs cycle, downstream gets converted into ATP, as seen below:

Prolonged exercise to fatigue results in glycogen depletion, a deficiency in energy (ATP) with an increase in ADP and AMP, and reduced levels of TCA intermediates (5).

In addition, L-malate plays an important role in the transfer of cytosolic NADH to mitochondrial NADH. NADH are then oxidized by the electron transport chain to product ATP in the mitochondria. There are two NADH shuttles for transfer it from the cytosol to the mitochondria: the glycerol phosphate shuttle and the malate-aspartate shuttle. L-malate is able to increase the efficiency of the malate-aspartate shuttle, thereby increasing ATP in the mitochondria (7).

During high bouts of exercise, it has been shown that blood ammonia increases. Malic acid activates mechanisms that result in ammonia levels dropping (6). In addition, it can maintain blood sugar during exercise.

Combination of Citrillune and Malate: Citrulline Malate

Malic acid in combination with citrulline is better than supplementing with citrulline alone. For example, malic acid helps for citrulline to absorb more efficiently into the body.

When citrulline and malic acid are combined to form citrulline malate, you get the benefits of vasodilation from citrulline and the energy production and endurance from malate. In combination, endurance and pump are increased significantly.

In one study, citrulline malate treatment resulted in a larger contribution of aerobic pathways to global energy production (9). This study showed that after exercise, those that were treated with citrulline malate had a decrease in anaerobic ATP production, which signifies that ATP production is from the aerobic pathway. Citrulline malate treatment has also been shown to result in a significant increase in levels of bicarbonate, ornithine, arginine, and citrulline (10). Citrulline malate shows an increased rate of ammonia clearance from the body (ammonia is associated with muscle fatigue); this effect is thought to be from citrulline (11). Malate, on the other hand, is a carbon contributor to the TCA cycle, and replenishes the pool of TCA intermediates. Studies have shown that the total pool of TCA intermediates increases several fold very quickly after the onset of muscle contraction (12). Malate, as one of the TCA intermediates, has the largest change during exercise, with an approximate 350% net increase (13). This increase in malate, and other TCA intermediates, is required to attain high rates of ATP production via the TCA cycle.

Citrulline malate has also been shown to enhance athletic anaerobic performance and relieve muscle soreness. In one study, athletes that were supplemented with citrulline malate showed a significant increase in the number of repetitions for barbell bench presses and a significant decrease of 40% in muscle soreness (15). During exercise, there is an increase in lactate, ammonia, and acidosis. It is believed that citrulline malate acts as a buffer to the exercise-induced increase in acidosis, lactate, and ammonium (10).

Citrulline malate supplementation can also enhance the use of amino acids, especially branched chain amino acids, during exercise (16). BCAAs have many benefits for athletes. BCAA supplementation decrease the breakdown of muscle proteins during exercise in humans, and leucine strongly promotes protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. In addition, BCAAs aid to delay the onset of muscle soreness and muscle fatigue, which suggests that they play an important role in muscle recovery (17).

CORDYCEPS SINESIS

ATP and Oxygen Carry Capacities…

Cordyceps is of a similar chemistry as mushrooms. However, it is believed to have a unique and precious type of chemistry, especially for athletes. As described above, cordyceps increases our ATP levels, our bodies’ “fuel.” Where does ATP come from and how does cordyceps increase it? Every cell in our body has these amazing little cellular structures called mitochondria. The mitochondria convert the nutrients from the food we consume into adenosine triphosphate, or as we commonly refer to it, ATP.

As long as we produce more ATP than our body uses, we have an energy surplus and our body feels great. On the other hand, if those tiny mitochondria cannot keep up with the body’s demand for energy – we have an energy deficit – and this can lead to problems. This is where the fungi’s benefits come in. Cordyceps provides strong support to mitochondrial health, as well as maintaining higher numbers of well-functioning mitochondria. More healthy mitochondria means more ATP, and more ATP is more fuel for us.

Having additional ATP for the body to use gives athletes an advantage in terms of performance during in competition and training, and also it gives competitive athletes the ability to recover. Since ATP is made on demand, the stores kept by our body are not very large. The implication of this is that we can run out of ATP quickly. In order to function at a high level, we need to continuously produce ATP to keep up with our energy expense. Cordyceps allows us to potentially maximize our energy capabilities.

On top of the ATP increases, cordyceps sinesis contains a plethora of other exceptional nutrients such as proteins, nucleic acid, a variety of vitamins and minerals, as well as polysaccharides and beta-glucans, which have both been shown to be useful in improving immunity.

Sources: See Studies link.

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